The skin is the body's largest organ and accounts for roughly 18% of an adult's weight. It serves as a protective outer layer that keeps in moisture and keeps out invasive organisms. It protects our organs against injury. It also helps regulate the body's temperature and has self-healing capabilities.
The best way to maintain healthy skin is to prevent skin damage from occurring in the first place. Wrinkles, age spots and leathery patches are all the result of skin damage from overexposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Although the natural aging process of the skin may be unavoidable, the visible effects of skin aging can be minimized. As we age, the skin becomes dryer and thinner. Repeated movements of facial muscles, such as frowning, smiling or squinting, cause wrinkles over time. Stress, gravity and obesity can exaggerate normal skin aging. Because aging skin is thinner, it is also more susceptible to bruising.
The premature aging of the skin from ultraviolet light exposure is called photoaging. Photoaging occurs when ultraviolet radiation penetrates deep into the dermis, damaging collagen fibers and causing the increased production of abnormal elastin. This breakdown in fundamental skin structures leads to deep wrinkles, fine lines, discoloration of the skin (age or "liver" spots), leatheriness and sagging skin.
Skin Care Routine
A healthy skin care routine throughout life can reduce the symptoms of aging in the skin. Be sure to:
- Wash your face using a gentle cleanser and lukewarm water twice a day.
- Pat skin dry; don't rub it dry.
- Exfoliate the skin periodically to remove dead cells.
- Apply a moisturizer to skin immediately after a shower or bath.
- Wear a broad-spectrum sunscreen with a SPF of at least 30 every day.
- For women who wear makeup, be sure to leave time each day when the skin is clean and free of makeup.
- Do not use tanning beds.
- Maintain a healthy diet and drink lots of water.
- Get an adequate amount of sleep every day.
- Quit smoking.
- Avoid stress.
- Conduct a monthly self-examination of your skin to detect any changes that might lead to cancer.
Today there are a wide range of options for slowing down the affects of aging on the skin. See the Cosmetic Dermatology section of this website for more information about:
- Neurotoxins (such as Botox or Dysport)
- Chemical peels
- Fillers (such as Juvederm or Restylane)
- Laser Resurfacing
Anyone who has a break in the skin is at risk for an infection. There are three common types of skin infections:
There are many bacteria that live on the surface of healthy skin. But with a break in the skin, these bacteria can invade the outer layer of skin and cause an infection and rash. Staph is a common cause of bacterial infections of the skin. Impetigo is the most common skin infection in children. Oral or topical antibiotics are used to treat bacterial skin infections.
Viruses are parasitic organisms that can live and grow inside living cells. They cause either a degeneration or a proliferation of the cell. Most causes of viral skin infections are either from Human Papilloma Virus, which causes warts, or Human Herpes Virus, which causes cold sores. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics. Generally, medications are prescribed to help alleviate the symptoms of the infection, such as a rash or itch. Additionally, vaccinations are used to prevent some viral infections.
Fungal infections of the human body are called mycoses and mostly affect only the outer layer of skin. Although seen in all areas of the body, skin mycoses most frequently appear as yeast infections, thrush, athlete's foot or jock itch.